- PAKISTAN ECONOMIC and SOCIAL REVIEW, Vol # 58, Issue # 2
- HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT IN PAKISTAN
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT IN PAKISTAN
- ZULFIQAR ALI IMRAN/
- ARIBAH ASLAM/
- MUHAMMAD ASLAM CHAUDHARY/
- December 31, 2020
The issue of unemployment is both deep rooted, burning and one of the major economic issues in Pakistan. It is perplexing as the officially reported level of unemployment are understated and underestimated (much owing to the methodology used to calculate it), despite the observed periodic rises in the rate of investment and expansions in economic growth rates. The present study calculates the duration adjusted unemployment rate by applying Boorach, V., K. (2002) formula, which helps to convert under-employment into full open unemployment. Three different scenarios for duration unemployment rates are utilized, as given in the Labor Force Survey 2013-14 & 2017-18. The official unemployment rate has been reported as 5.8% for 2017-18. The results of this study indicated that unemployment under scenario one, is as high as 10.02 percent in Pakistan, while duration of working hours were 15- 24 hours in a week; increased by 4.8% higher than that of official unemployment. The estimated unemployment rate is as high as over 25 percent under scenario two and three (sigma = 0.7 & 0.8) respectively. The urban and rural unemployment were 9% and 14%, under scenario one, respectively (sigma = 0.8). The same under scenario two and three were 25% and 31 % in urban (sigma =0.8) and 25% and 28% (sigma = 0.8) for rural areas under scenario two and three, respectively. The unemployment rate is higher for females, i.e. 15.7% (scenario one, sigma =0.8), as compared to males’ of 9%. The same rate for females was over 28% for inequality of 0.8 for scenarios two and three. However, the same rates for males were 24% and 29% for scenario 2 and 3, respectively. Among all provinces, unemployment was highest in KPK and Punjab, as compared to other provinces. All above, indicated that unemployment rates were much higher than that of the official rate, in all respects. It is also clear that unemployment was hidden in the under-employment definition. There is a need to chalk out better economic policies to manage human resources; focused on to generate employment opportunities to manage unemployment and underemployment.
Atkinson, A. B. (1970). On the measurement of inequality. Journal of economic theory, 2(3), 244-263.
Booroh, V. K., (2002), Duration sensitive measure of unemployment rate: Theory and Application, (ICER, Torino, Italy). School of Public Policy, Economics and Law. University of Ulster, N. Ireland U.K.
Chaudhary M. Aslam (1994). Human Resource Planning and Imbalances in Pakistan. Paper presented in Pak-Aims conference, Lahore.
Chaudhary M. Aslam, (2021), Economic Management and Emerging Issues in Pakistan, forthcoming, HEC publication (accepted)
Chaudhary, M. A., & Hamid, A. (1998). Unemployment in Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 36(2), 147-170.
Chaudhary, M. Aslam & Hamid, A. (1999). Human Resource Development and Management in Pakistan. Ferozesons, Lahore.
Cameron J., & Irfan M. (1991). Enabling people to help themselves: An employment and human resource strategy for Pakistan in the 1980s, ILO/AREP.
Dennison, E. F. (1982). Trends in American economic growth, 1929-82. The Brooking Institute, Washington D. C.
Gillani, S. Y. M., Rehman, H. U., & Gill, A. R. (2009). Unemployment, poverty, inflation and crime nexus: Co- integration and causality analysis of Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 47(1), 79-98.
Government of Pakistan, Labor Force Survey (1994-95, to 2013-14) & 2017-18. Islamabad. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Economic Affairs and Statistics division, GOP, Islamabad.
Government of Pakistan, FBS, population Census, 2017, Government of Pakistan. Islamabad.
Government of Pakistan (2017-18), Pakistan Economic Survey, Economic Adviser Wing, Ministry of Finance, GOP. Islamabad.
Kemal A. R. (1987). Human Resource Planning: An Asian experience in Pakistan. Bangkok.
Krugman P. (1991), .Increasing Returns and Economic Geography, Journal of Political Economy, 99(3), 483-99.
Laužadytė, A. (2013). Duration sensitive unemployment rate in the rural areas of Lithuania. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, 35(1), 81-89.
Maqbool, M. S., Mahmood, T., Sattar, A., & Bhalli, M. (2013). Determinants of Unemployment: Empirical Evidences from Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 51(2), 191-207.
Qayyum, W., & Siddiqui, R. (2007). Causes of Youth Unemployment in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 611-621.
Robinson, W. C., & Abbasi, N. (1979). Underemployment in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 18(4), 313-331.
Zulfiquar, K., & Chaudhary, A. M. (2007). Dimensions and Spread of Unemployment Spell in Pakistan. Forman Journal of Economic Studies, 3, 1-31.
|Pages||181 - 206|
|Published||December 31, 2020|
|Department of Economics, University of the Punjab, Lahore|
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.